And, the search process is focused on external stimuli relevant to soloing problem is called external search. A consumer decision requires the appropriate evaluative criteria for the solution of a problem. The existence of various alternative solutions the performance level or characteristic of each alternative solution on each evaluative criteria. As consumers move into more extended decision making, the relative importance of external information search tends to increase. External information can include: The information sources are from memory; personal sources, independent sources marketing sources and experiential sources.
Usually different measures of external information search have been used: Sources used, overall or combination measures. Market characteristics include the number of alternatives, price, and age.
Store distribution and information availability. Product characteristics like price level and differentiation tend to influence external search. The consumer and situational characteristics also influence the external search. Evaluative criteria are the various features a consumer looks for in response to a particular problem. They are the performance levels or characteristics consumers use to compare different brands in light of their particular consumption problem.
The number type and importance of evaluative criteria used differ from consumer to consumer and across product categories. When consumers judge alternative brands or several evaluative criteria, they must have some methods for selecting one brand from the various choices. Decision rules are used by them. A decision rule specifies how a consumer compares two or more brands. Five commonly used decision rule are the disjunctive, conjunctive, lexicographic, elimination-by-aspects, and compensatory rules.
The store is image and the type and amount of retail advertising often exert important influences as evaluative criteria.
The major dimensions of store image include merchandise, service, clientele, and physical facilities, convenience. Promotion and store atmosphere. Outlet location is an important attribute for many consumers. Larger outlets are general preferred over small outlets. Shopping orientation refers to the general approach a consumer takes to acquiring both brands and non-purchase satisfaction from various types of retail outlets. While in a store, consumers may often purchase a brand or product that differs from their plans made before entering the store.
Such purchase is referred to as impulse or unplanned purchase, and the decisions can be the result of additional information processing induced by in store stimuli. Once the outlet and brand have been selected, the consumer must acquire the rights to the item. Whether or not the consumer experiences dissonance, most purchases are followed by product use. That consumers use a product to fulfil certain needs.
If the product does not fulfil these needs, a negative evaluation may result. Monitoring product usage can indicate new uses for existing products, needed product modifications, appropriate advertising themes, and opportunities for new products. Disposal of the product or its packaging may occur before, during or after product use. Postpurchase dissonance, product usage disposal are potential influences on the purchase evaluation process.
Basically, consumers develop certain expectations about the ability of the product to fulfil instrumental and symbolic needs. Taking no action, switching brands, products, or stores, and warning friends are all common reactions to a negative purchase evaluation. After the evaluation process and, where applicable, the complaint process, consumers have some degree of repurchase motivation.
There may be a strong motive to avoid the brand, a willingness to repurchase it some of the time, or some level of brand loyalty, which is a willingness to repurchase coupled with a psychological commitment to the brand.
Attention occurs when the stimulus activities one or more of the sensory receptors, and the resulting sensations go into the brain for processing. Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to stimuli that have been attended to consumers must learn almost everything related to being a consumer: Learning is defined as any change in the content or organization of long-term memory. The strength of learning depends on: It proposes five levels of motivation: Consumers are often aware of and will admit t the motives causing their behavior.
Because of the large number of motives and the many different situations that consumers face. Motivational conflict can occur, in approach-approach conflict, approach-avoidance conflict and avoidance-avoidance conflict. The personality of a consumer guides and directs the behavior chosen for accomplishing goals in different situations. The relatively long-lasting personal quality that allows individuals to respond to the world around them.
Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrollable feelings that affect behavior, occur when environmental events or mental processes trigger physiological changes. Attitude-change strategies can focus on affect, behavior, cognition or some combination of these. The reference group is a group whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her current behavior.
Marketers have found three classification criteria-membership, degree of contact and attraction to be particular useful. Groups that have frequent personal contact are primary groups, while those with limited interpersonal contact are called secondary groups. Group influence varies across situations. Informational influence occurs when individual conforms to group expectations to gain approval or avoid disapproval. The physical surrounding there is absolutely good as well as every its franchise stores.
As people walk in the store the first display table is displaying the newest clothing and shoes, very comfortable seats for people to try the shoes just opposite the shoes displaying shelf and the every corner for a certain kind of product like classical shoes, jackets, shirts and pants, and athlete series, mountain clamber series. They have very high quality staff work in every store that makes consumers feel really good. Social surroundings are also involves in here, Steve said that he would rather buy if the stores are in the big shopping center.
A pair of Timberland shoes is considering as the shopping product in the problem recognition also a extended decision making. He did some compares ion works before he actually bought that RM shoes. Actually, he wanted to choose from 4 brands at the first time: Nike, Adidas, Converse all stars and Timberland. But after he tried the Timberland he decided to buy it immediately, and several friends of him are wearing Timberland boots as well.
He likes all kinds of timberland ads, he even feels those are the rest ads make him feel good. The disjunctive decision rule is used by him in the evaluation and selection of alternatives. The timberland shoes completely meet his expectation and performance quite well, he is very satisfied with it. Consumer behavior studies the characteristics of individual consumers, by looking at variables such as demographics, psychographics and behavior, in an attempt to understand the consumer and his or her world.
Demographics include factors such as race, age, income, mobility travel time to work or number of vehicles available , educational attainment, home ownership, employment status and location.
Psychographics are attributes related to personality, values, attitudes, interests, or lifestyles. Behavioral variables include usage rate and loyalty. Consumer behavior also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in general Perner, Consumer behavior is a subcategory of marketing that blends elements from economics, psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology and other sciences, such as physiological psychology, biochemistry, and genetics.
Psychology — the study of individual behavior — was one of the earliest and most extensively used fields from which concepts have been borrowed. It has been said that the basic nature of consumer behavior is diversity: Although early related research can be traced back much further, the attempt to theorize consumer behavior began in , first looking at the type of behavioral processes consumers typically used in adopting new products; then addressing consumer problem-solving, buyer behavior, and buyer decision processes.
Subsequent research has looked into information processing of consumer choice, and the experiential consumer. Since the early s, research has been conducted in areas as wide and varied as deviant behavior, consumer perception, planned behavior, intention-behavior discrepancy, environmentally responsible behavior, consumer judgment, attitudes, dependence, international and cross-cultural consumer behavior, impulsive buying, personality-behavior relationships, the role of imagery, and social and political marketing issues.
Behavior occurs either for an individual on his or her own; for an individual in the context of a group where others in the group influence how a person behaves ; or for an organization where people on the job make decisions as to which products the firm should use.
The study of consumer behavior attempts to understand the buyer decision making process for individuals, groups and organizations. Consumer decision making comes about as an attempt to solve consumer problems, both major and minor. A consumer buying decision process can have up to six stages. Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process, and not all decision processes may lead to a purchase.
The number of stages involved in a particular decision will depend on the degree of complexity of that decision. The six stages are: The first stage, Problem Recognition, is when a consumer becomes aware of a need. The need is manifest because there is a difference between the consumer's desired state and his or her actual condition.
The second stage is the information search. There are two types of information searches: With an internal information search, the consumer searches the information stored in his or her memory.
The study of consumer behavior involves elements of economics, the social sciences, and the physical sciences. An endless and diverse field of research and applications, consumer behavior.
Part 1: Executive Summary This research paper explains the decision making process, the internal and external factors that have influences a "high involvement".
This sample research paper written on consumer behavior will help improve your understanding of branding and risk aversion in marketing.5/5(1). Read our consumer behavior research paper example to help you write your marketing consumer behaviour papers /essays.
Free consumer behavior papers, essays, and research papers. Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Research Papers On Consumer Behavior.