Last, and certainly not least, there is basic practical concern. We face an environmental crisis of catastrophic proportions. As Emmett among many others has pointed out, it is likely that we are looking at a global average rise of over four degrees Centigrade. To facilitate learning we must have some understanding of the subject matter being explored, and the impact study could have on those involved.
In other words, facilitation is intelligent. We expect, quite reasonably, that when people describe themselves as teachers or educators, they know something about the subjects they are talking about. It can involve particular aspects of knowledge and activity such as those associated with maths or history.
However, it is also concerned with happiness and relationships, the issues and problems of everyday life in communities, and questions around how people are best to live their lives. In some respects, it is wisdom that is required — not so much in the sense that we know a lot or are learned — but rather we are able to help people make good judgements about problems and situations. We also assume that teachers and educators know how to help people learn.
The forms of education we are exploring here are sophisticated. They can embrace the techniques of classroom management and of teaching to a curriculum that have been the mainstay of schooling. However, they move well beyond this into experiential learning, working with groups, and forms of working with individuals that draw upon insights from counselling and therapy. In short, we look to teachers and educators as experts, We expect them to apply their expertise to help people learn.
Many look for something more — wisdom. Wisdom is not something that we can generally claim for ourselves — but a quality recognized by others. Sometimes when people are described as wise what is meant is that they are scholarly or learned.
The real teacher, he believed:. He feels he may trust this man, that this man is taking part in his life, accepting him before desiring to influence him.
And so he learns to ask…. Here we will explore the claim that education should be undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life. This commitment to the good of all and of each individual is central to the vision of education explored here, but it could be argued that it is possible to be involved in education without this. We could take out concern for others. We could just focus on process — the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning — and not state to whom this applies and the direction it takes.
His next step was to consider the social relationships in which this can take place and the degree of control that learners and educators have over the process. Just as Freire argued later, relationships for learning need to be mutual, and individual and social change possible. In our search for aims in education, we are not concerned… with finding an end outside of the educative process to which education is subordinate.
Our whole conception forbids. We are rather concerned with the contrast which exists when aims belong within the process in which they operate and when they are set up from without. And the latter state of affairs must obtain when social relationships are not equitably balanced.
For in that case, some portions of the whole social group will find their aims determined by an external dictation; their aims will not arise from the free growth of their own experience, and their nominal aims will be means to more ulterior ends of others rather than truly their own.
However, we have to work for much of the time in situations and societies where this level of democracy and social justice does not exist. Hence the need to make clear a wider purpose. I want to widen this and to argue that all should have a chance to share in life.
We will explore, briefly, three overlapping approaches to making the case — via religious belief, human rights and scientific exploration. Historically it has been a religious rationale that has underpinned much thinking about this about this question.
If we were to look at Catholic social teaching, for example, we find that at its heart lays a concern for human dignity. Each life is considered sacred and cannot be ignored or excluded. All are worthy of respect and the chance to flourish. To human dignity a concern for solidarity is often added especially within contemporary Catholic social teaching.
It is a principle that can both strengthen civil society and the possibility of more mutual relationships for learning. Together, these can provide a powerful and inclusive rationale for looking beyond particular individuals or groups when thinking about educational activity.
Beside religious arguments lie others that are born of agreed principle or norm rather than faith. Perhaps the best known of these relate to what have become known as human rights. The first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights puts it this way:. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages.
Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. These fundamental and inalienable rights are the entitlement of all human beings regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status Article 2.
Lastly, I want to look at the results of scientific investigation into our nature as humans. More specifically we need to reflect on what it means when humans are described as social animals. As we have already seen there is a significant amount of research showing just how dependent we are in everyday life on having trusting relationships in a society.
Without them even the most basic exchanges cannot take place. We also know that in those societies where there is stronger concern for others and relatively narrow gaps between rich and poor people are generally happier see, for example, Halpern On the basis of this material we could make a case for educators to look to the needs and experiences of all.
Political, social and economic institutions depend on mass participation or at least benign consent — and the detail of this has to be learnt. However, with our growing appreciation of how our brains work and with the development of, for example, social cognitive neuroscience, we have a have a different avenue for exploration.
We look to the needs and experience of others because we are hard-wired to do so. Lieberman has put it:. Our survival as a species is dependent upon on looking to the needs and experiences of others. Primates have developed an unparalleled ability to understand the actions and thoughts of those around them, enhancing their ability to stay connected and interact strategically… This capacity allows humans to create groups that can implement nearly any idea and to anticipate the needs and wants of those around us, keeping our groups moving smoothly op.
Although the self may appear to be a mechanism for distinguishing us from others and perhaps accentuating our selfishness, the self actually operates as a powerful force for social cohesiveness. One of the key issues around these processes is the extent to which they can act to become exclusionary i. In so doing relationships that are necessary to our survival — and that of the planet — become compromised.
We need to develop relationships that are both bonding and bridging see social capital — and this involves being and interacting with others who may not share our interests and concerns.
Education is more than fostering understanding and an appreciation of emotions and feelings. As Karl Marx Developing an understanding of an experience or a situation is one thing, working out what is good and wanting to do something about it is quite another.
It involves us, as educators, working with people to create and sustain environments and relationships where it is possible to:. As such education is a deeply practical activity — something that we can do for ourselves what we could call self-education , and with others.
What does education involve? First, we can see a guiding eidos or leading idea — the belief that all share in life and a picture of what might allow people to be happy and flourish. Finally, there is praxis — informed, committed action Carr and Kemmis ; Grundy If there is a core theme to the formal position it is that education is about passing on information; for formalists, culture and civilization represent a store of ideas and wisdom which have to be handed on to new generations.
Teaching is at the heart of this transmission; and the process of transmission is education…. As both Thomas and Dewey A lot of the debate is either really about education being turned, or slipping, into something else, or reflecting a lack of balance between the informal and formal.
The problem often comes when education drifts or moves into entertainment or containment. His potentialities should be developed with proper care and nourishment. The term ' educere ' means ' to lead out ', ' to draw out ' and ' to bring from '. Each and every child has the innate powers. The innate powers of the child should be properly cared, given scope to develop. It should be located and proper education to be developed. The term ' educatum ' means ' act of teaching ' or ' training '.
Education is something which is imposed from outside. It is external growth through activities and experience. The teacher, through education provides instructions and gives direction to mould his abilities. It is the main working activity of children from the ages of five to fifteen and often beyond.
Education employs a large army of people. Sociologists are becoming more and more aware of the importance and role of educational institutions in the modern industrialized societies. In recent years, education has become the major interest of some sociologists. As a result, a new branch of sociology called sociology of education has become established. Durkheim conceives of education as "the socialization of the younger generation.
Summer defined education as "the attempt, to transmit the child the modes of the group. So that he can learn what conduct, is approved and what disapproved how he ought to behave in all kinds of cases: What he ought to believe and reject,". Roucek say that education is "the sum total of the experience which moulds the attitudes and determines the conduct of both the child and the adult.
James Welton in Encyclopedia Britannica 11th Edition writes that education consist in an attempt on the part of the adult members of human society to shape the development of the coming generation with its own ideals of life. Green, "Historically it has meant the conscious training of the young for the later adoption of adult roles. By modern convention, however, education has come to mean formal training by specialists within the formal organization of the school,.
Samuel Koening says "Education may also be defined as the process whereby the social heritage of the group is passed on from one generation to another as well as the process whereby" the child "becomes socialized, learns the, roles of behavior of the group into which he is born. Education stands for deliberate instruction or training. Man does not behave in society impulsively or instinctively.
He behaves in a way according to which he is trained. Some thinkers have equated it with socialization. A few other regard education as an attempt to transmit the cultural norms of the group to its younger members. It is also understood more knowledge.
All these three interpretations of education as a process or a continuous entity the word process stressed continuity. Firstly, education, viewed as socialization, is continuous.
Education requires instruction of some sort from an individual or composed literature. The most common forms of education result from years of schooling that incorporates studies of a variety of subjects.
Education is one of the basic activities of people in all human societies. The continued existence of society depends upon the transmission of culture to the young. It is essential that every new generation must be given training in the ways of the group so that the same tradition will continue.
Education, culture are often used interchangeably to mean the results of schooling. Education, however, suggests chiefly the information acquired. Culture is a mode of . The definition of education guiding mainstream schools today is that education is the delivery of knowledge, skills, and information from teachers to students. While the above metaphor—education as a delivery system— sounds reasonable, it misses what is most important about education.
The term education system generally refers to public schooling, not private schooling, and more commonly to kindergarten through high school programs. Schools or school districts are typically the smallest recognized form of “education system” and countries are the largest. States are also considered to have education systems. Simply put, an education system comprises everything that [ ]. What is education? A definition and discussion. What is education? Is it different from schooling? In this piece Mark K Smith explores the meaning of education and suggests it is a process of inviting truth and possibility. It can be defined as the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should.