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Though, there are no hard and fast rules on how to write an academic paper, by following a few precise techniques, information and mindset, you can put together an uncomplicated, reliable technique of creating quality academic papers with a minimum of hassle and pressure.
It is important to begin early because if you are thinking there will be more time later, you better juggle around with the thought again.
As an academic paper is not precise enough to write in a short time span, it is essential to preplan at an early stage. Next, it is imperative that you outline your academic paper. On this stage, you ought to realize the elements of the academic paper and the required number of words for each section.
With an outline, you can focus on addressing all concerns within the corresponding amount of space coverage. Some academic papers specify word count, while other does not. Therefore, it is highly central that you be able to plan your academic paper properly with the support of an outline. An academic paper requires careful development of the proposed research statement. After that, stick out your mind to gather resources.
Hard copy publications remain supreme sources as the foremost set of resource materials to search. The bibliographies in these initial sources will have done a large amount of your academic paper. Use the first source bibliographies to make a list of works. When you analyze, you break the whole into parts so that you might see the whole differently. In the process of analysis, you find things that you might say.
When you analyze, you break down a text into its parts. When you synthesize, you look for connections between ideas. Consider once again the Hitchcock film. In analyzing this film, you might come up with elements that seem initially disparate. You may have some observations that at first don't seem to gel. Or you may have read various critical perspectives on the film, all of them in disagreement with one another. Now would be the time to consider whether these disparate elements or observations might be reconciled, or synthesized.
This intellectual exercise requires that you create an umbrella argument - some larger argument under which several observations and perspectives might stand. Many students writing in college have trouble figuring out what constitutes an appropriate topic.
Sometimes the professor will provide you with a prompt. She will give you a question to explore, or a problem to resolve. When you are given a prompt by your professor, be sure to read it carefully. Your professor is setting the parameters of the assignment for you.
She is telling you what sort of paper will be appropriate. In many cases, however, the professor won't provide you with a prompt. She might not even give you a topic. For example, in a psychology course you might be asked to write a paper on any theory or theories of self. Your professor has given you a subject, but she has not given you a topic. Nor has she told you what the paper should look like. Should it summarize one of the theories of self? Should it compare two or more theories?
Should it place these theories into some historical context? Should it take issue with these theories, pointing out their limitations? At this juncture, you have two options: It's always a good idea to talk with the professor.
At the very least, you'll want to find out if the professor wants a report or a paper. In other words, is your professor looking for information or argument? Chances are she'll want you to make an argument. It will be up to you to narrow your topic and to make sure that it's appropriately academic. As you think about a topic, ask yourself the following questions:. When writing an academic paper, you must not only consider what you want to say, you must also consider to whom you are saying it.
In other words, it's important to determine not only what you think about a topic, but also what your audience is likely to think. What are your audience's biases? To whom are you writing, and for what purpose? When you begin to answer all of these questions, you have started to reckon with what has been called "the rhetorical stance.
Let's first consider your relationship to your topic. When you write a paper, you take a stand on a topic. You determine whether you are for or against, passionate or cool-headed. You determine whether you are going to view this topic through a particular perspective feminist, for example , or whether you are going to make a more general response. You also determine whether you are going to analyze your topic through the lens of a particular discipline - history, for example. Your stance on the topic depends on the many decisions you have made in the reading and thinking processes.
In order to make sure that your stance on a topic is appropriately analytical, you might want to ask yourself some questions. Begin by asking why you've taken this particular stance. Why did you find some elements of the text more important than others? Does this prioritizing reflect some bias or preconception on your part? If you dismissed part of a text as boring or unimportant, why did you do so?
Do you have personal issues or experiences that lead you to be impatient with certain claims? Is there any part of your response to the text that might cause your reader to discount your paper as biased or un-critical? If so, you might want to reconsider your position on your topic.
Your position on a topic does not by itself determine your rhetorical stance. You must also consider your reader. In the college classroom, the audience is usually the professor or your classmates - although occasionally your professor will instruct you to write for a more particular or more general audience. No matter who your reader is, you will want to consider him carefully before you start to write.
What do you know about your reader and his stance towards your topic? What is he likely to know about the topic? What biases is he likely to have? Moreover, what effect do you hope to have on the reader? Is your aim to be controversial? Will the reader appreciate or resent your intention? Once you have determined who your reader is, you will want to consider how you might best reach him. If, for example, you are an authority on a subject and you are writing to readers who know little or nothing about it, then you'll want to take an informative stance.
If you aren't yet confident about a topic, and you have more questions than answers, you might want to take an inquisitive stance. In any case, when you are deciding on a rhetorical stance, choose one that allows you to be sincere.
You don't want to take an authoritative stance on a subject if you aren't confident about what you are saying. On the other hand, you can't avoid taking a position on a subject: What if you are of two minds on a subject?
Declare that to the reader. Make ambivalence your clear rhetorical stance. Finally, don't write simply to please your professor. Though some professors find it flattering to discover that all of their students share their positions on a subject, most of us are hoping that your argument will engage us by telling us something new about your topic - even if that "something new" is simply a fresh emphasis on a minor detail.
Moreover, it is impossible for you to replicate the "ideal paper" that exists in your professor's head. When you try, you risk having your analysis compared to your professor's. Do you really want that to happen? In high school you might have been taught various strategies for structuring your papers. Some of you might have been raised on the five paragraph theme, in which you introduce your topic, come up with three supporting points, and then conclude by repeating what you've already said.
Others of you might have been told that the best structure for a paper is the hour-glass model, in which you begin with a general statement, make observations that are increasingly specific, and then conclude with a statement that is once again general.
When you are writing papers in college, you will require structures that will support ideas that are more complex than the ones you considered in high school.
Your professors might offer you several models for structuring your paper. They might tell you to order your information chronologically or spatially, depending on whether you are writing a paper for a history class or a course in art history.
Or they may provide you with different models for argument: No prefab model exists that will provide adequate structure for the academic argument. For more detailed advice on various ways to structure your paper, see Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. When creating an informed argument, you will want to rely on several organizational strategies, but you will want to keep some general advice in mind.
Your introduction should accomplish two things: Often writers will do the latter before they do the former. That is, they will begin by summarizing what other scholars have said about their topic, and then they will declare what they are adding to the conversation.
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The tone of an academic paper, then, must be inviting to the reader, even while it maintains an appropriate academic style. Remember: professors are human beings, capable of boredom, laughter, irritation, and awe.
with at least one of the words. without the words. where my words occur. In academic publishing, a paper is an academic work that is usually published in an academic journal. It contains original research results or reviews existing results.
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