Science tends to use experimentation to study and interpret a specific hypothesis or question, allowing a gradual accumulation of knowledge that slowly becomes a basic assumption.
For any study, there must be a clear procedure so that the experiment can be replicated and the results verified. Again, there is a bit of a grey area for observation-based research , as is found in anthropology, behavioral biology and social science, but they still fit most of the other criteria.
Planning and designing the experimental method , is an important part of the project and should revolve around answering specific predictions and questions. This will allow an exact duplication and verification by independent researchers, ensuring that the results are accepted as real.
Most scientific research looks at an area and breaks it down into easily tested pieces. The gradual experimentation upon these individual pieces will allow the larger questions to be approached and answered, breaking down a large and seemingly insurmountable problem, into manageable chunks. True research never gives a definitive answer but encourages more research in another direction. Even if a hypothesis is disproved, that will give an answer and generate new ideas, as it is refined and developed.
Research is cyclical, with the results generated leading to new areas or a refinement of the original process. The term, research , is much stricter in science than in everyday life. It revolves around using the scientific method to generate hypotheses and provide analyzable results. All scientific research has a goal and ultimate aim , repeated and refined experimentation gradually reaching an answer.
These results are a way of gradually uncovering truths and finding out about the processes that drive the universe around us. Only by having a rigid structure to experimentation, can results be verified as acceptable contributions to science. Some other areas, such as history and economics, also perform true research, but tend to have their own structures in place for generating solid results.
They also contribute to human knowledge but with different processes and systems. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Feb 2, Retrieved Sep 13, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.
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Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Research Basics". Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. Leave this field blank: Want to stay up to date? Defining the population assists the researcher in several ways. First, it narrows the scope of the study from a very large population to one that is manageable.
This helps ensure that the researcher stays on the right path during the study. Finally, by defining the population, the researcher identifies the group that the results will apply to at the conclusion of the study. This narrower population makes the study more manageable in terms of time and resources. The plan for the study is referred to as the instrumentation plan. The instrumentation plan serves as the road map for the entire study, specifying who will participate in the study; how, when, and where data will be collected; and the content of the program.
This plan is composed of numerous decisions and considerations that are addressed in chapter 8 of this text. In the obesity study, the researcher has decided to have the children participate in a walking program for six months. The group of participants is called the sample, which is a smaller group selected from the population specified for the study. The study cannot possibly include every to year-old child in the community, so a smaller group is used to represent the population.
The researcher develops the plan for the walking program, indicating what data will be collected, when and how the data will be collected, who will collect the data, and how the data will be analyzed.
The instrumentation plan specifies all the steps that must be completed for the study. This ensures that the programmer has carefully thought through all these decisions and that she provides a step-by-step plan to be followed in the study.
Once the instrumentation plan is completed, the actual study begins with the collection of data. The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question.
Every study includes the collection of some type of data—whether it is from the literature or from subjects—to answer the research question. Data can be collected in the form of words on a survey, with a questionnaire, through observations, or from the literature.
In the obesity study, the programmers will be collecting data on the defined variables: The researcher collects these data at the first session and at the last session of the program. These two sets of data are necessary to determine the effect of the walking program on weight, body fat, and cholesterol level. Once the data are collected on the variables, the researcher is ready to move to the final step of the process, which is the data analysis. All the time, effort, and resources dedicated to steps 1 through 7 of the research process culminate in this final step.
The researcher finally has data to analyze so that the research question can be answered. In the instrumentation plan, the researcher specified how the data will be analyzed. The researcher now analyzes the data according to the plan.
The results of this analysis are then reviewed and summarized in a manner directly related to the research questions. In the obesity study, the researcher compares the measurements of weight, percentage of body fat, and cholesterol that were taken at the first meeting of the subjects to the measurements of the same variables at the final program session. These two sets of data will be analyzed to determine if there was a difference between the first measurement and the second measurement for each individual in the program.
Then, the data will be analyzed to determine if the differences are statistically significant. If the differences are statistically significant, the study validates the theory that was the focus of the study. The results of the study also provide valuable information about one strategy to combat childhood obesity in the community.
As you have probably concluded, conducting studies using the eight steps of the scientific research process requires you to dedicate time and effort to the planning process.
You cannot conduct a study using the scientific research process when time is limited or the study is done at the last minute. Researchers who do this conduct studies that result in either false conclusions or conclusions that are not of any value to the organization. Get the latest news, special offers, and updates on authors and products.
Identify the Problem The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. This Item is currently out of stock. Health Care in Exercise and Sport. Health Care for Special Conditions. Physical Activity and Health. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Research Methods, Measurement, and Evaluation. Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Sport Management and Sport Business.
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Steps of the research process This is an excerpt from Applied Research and Evaluation Methods in Recreation By Diane C. Blankenship. Scientific research involves a systematic process that focuses on being objective and gathering a multitude of information .
Research process 1. Presented by: Aditi Garg 2. The process of gathering informationfor the purpose ofinitiating, modifying or terminating aparticular investment or group ofinvestments.
Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural wapji99.tk step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied. Research is cyclical, with the results generated leading to new areas or a refinement of the original process. 4) Conclusion The term, research, is much stricter in science than in everyday life.
The Seven Steps of the Research Process The following seven steps outline a simple and effective strategy for finding information for a research paper and documenting the sources you find. Depending on your topic and your familiarity with the library, you may need to. Process Research Products (PRP), NJ is a manufacturer of specialty electronic chemicals primarily used in the Poly Silicon Wafer Processing Industry.